Skin and Hair

Teenage skin is very sensitive and most teenagers are either averse to taking care of their skin or overdo the skin care routine and clog their pores . As we know , teenage years are the years for growth and development and skin is the largest organ of the body .

Factor which affect skin health are :

  • Diet & nutrition
  • Hormones
  • Sun exposure
  • Daily skin care routine – clensing& application of sunscreen
  • Sleep
  • Medications – oral contraceptive pills, thyroid medication , antiepileptic medications
  • Certain health conditions- PCOS , thyroid
  • Type of skin – oily or mixed skin
  • Stress

Common skin problems include :

  • Acne
  • Eczema & Dermatitis
  • Dandruff
  • Atheletes foot ( fungal infection )
  • Cold sores
  • Excessive sweating
  • Sunburn

Acne is the problem of nearly all teens. All of us go through the acne phase, although some suffer longer and more severely than others.

Acne treatment is different for boys and girls.

Causes of Acne
Pimples are caused when oil ducts in the skin get plugged up and then burst, causing redness and swelling. Although there are many myths about acne, the following are the three main factors that cause it.

1. Hormones
At beginning of puberty, certain hormones, called androgens, increase in both males and females. These hormones trigger oil ducts on the face, back, and upper chest to begin producing oil. This can cause acne in some people.

2. Heredity
If other members of family had acne as teenagers, there may be a chance that the teen may inherit a tendency toward getting acne as well.

3. Plugged oil ducts
If the teen is prone to acne, the cells that line the oil ducts in the skin tend to get larger and produce more oil, and the ducts get plugged. This traps the oil and leads to the formation of blackheads or whiteheads.

The plugged ducts allow germs in the skin to multiply and produce chemicals that cause redness and swelling. This is why simple blackheads and whiteheads may turn red and bumpy and turn into the pimples of acne.


Acne can appear anywhere on the body, but it is most common on the face, neck, chest, back, shoulders, upper arms, and buttocks. Teens who suffer may have:

  • Blackheads – open clogged pore
  • Whiteheads – closed clogged pore
  • Papules – small red bumps
  • Pustules – papules that have pus in their tips
  • Cysts – painful, pus-filled lumps
  • Nodules – hard, painful lumps

What makes acne worse?

  • Pinching (or “popping”) pimples, which forces oil from the oil ducts into the surrounding normal skin, causing redness and swelling.
  • Harsh scrubbing, which irritates the skin.
  • Things that rub on the skin, such as headbands, hats, hair, and chin straps, which also cause irritation.
  • makeup, such as creams and oily hair products, which can block oil ducts and aggravate acne.
  • For young women, changes in hormone levels brought on by menstrual periods
  • Emotional stress and nervous tension.

Treating acne
There are treatments, which can generally keep acne under control. Please consult your pediatrician.

Important things to remember

Be patient. It takes 3 to 6 weeks to see any improvement. Give each treatment enough time to work.

Be faithful. Follow your program every day. Don’t stop and start each time your skin changes. Remember, Sometimes your skin may appear to worsen early in the program before you begin to see improvement.

Follow directions. Not using the treatment as directed is the most common reason the treatment fails.

Don’t use medication prescribed for someone else. This holds true for all medications, Doctors prescribe medication specifically for particular patients. What’s good for a friend may be harmful for you.

Don’t overdo it. Too much scrubbing makes skin worse.    

2.Eczema or dermatitis  is actually a term for rashes, itching, swelling, and irritation of the skin. Scratching can spread the condition and lead to more inflammation, so it should be avoided .Teens with eczema and atopic dermatitis can experience  embarrassment&shame, thinking that they may spread their skin condition to others, so it’s important for them to understand their condition is not contagious. Eczema is most common in infants and children, and it can often improve with age and even go away. Teens and adults of all ages may also struggle with eczema, and they are at greater risk if they experienced the condition as children.

It most commonly occurs on the face, inside the elbows and knees, and on the hands or feet..

Causes of eczema or dermatitis :

 it may be influenced by both genetics and environment.


Itching is the most common warning sign of eczema, but there are many different forms of the condition. Symptoms can be wide-ranging and include:

  • Severely dry skin
  • Redness and irritation of the skin
  • Sensitive skin
  • Inflammation and swelling
  • Itching
  • Scaly or rough patches
  • Oozing or draining sores
  • Darkened skin coloring

Treatment Options

Because eczema is worsened by irritation, avoiding certain products and materials that may trigger a response is essential. Identification of triggers is important . Your eczema treatment plan may also include the following:

  • Keeping track of new foods, skin care, or cleaning products that may cause flareups or changes in the skin’s appearance
  • Maintain a bathing and moisturizing routine that utilizes mild cleansers and intense moisturizers
  • Take medications , if required  to avoid itching and inflammation
  • Use prescription topical medications and ointments, including steroids, as directed by your doctor
  • Keep nails cut short to avoid injuring skin if you scratch during sleep

3.Dandruff is a condition that causes the skin on the scalp to dry out and flake off in large pieces. Like eczema, the exact cause of dandruff is unknown. Having dandruff is nothing to be embarrassed about .


The main symptom of dandruff is the noticeable white skin flakes that appear in the hair and on the shoulders or any of the following :

  • White flakes in the hair or on clothing
  • Itching or burning in the scalp
  • Eczema or rash on face, especially around the ears, nose, eyebrows, and beard
  • Oily skin that also has dry patches and flakes
  • Rashes on other parts of the body that are red or inflamed with dry flakes of skin

Treatment Options

There are numerous at-home remedies for dandruff, including a wide range of dandruff shampoos and treatments:

  • Use of special shampoos
  • Wash hair more frequently
  • Treat skin inflammation with prescription steroid cream
  • Remove dandruff flakes by brushing hair frequently
  • For severe cases, prescription oral steroids may be recommended

4.Athlete’s footor tineapedisis an infection that typically occurs on the toes, feet, and ankles, and it is caused by the growth of fungus. Because it often occurs when people’s feet become sweaty, athletes are highly susceptible to the condition, which is why the condition is often called Athelete’s foot. While most cases of athlete’s foot can be treated with over the counter products, it’s usually a chronic condition that causes the problem


  • Red, inflamed rash usually starting between the toes
  • Itching that is especially pronounced immediately after removing shoes
  • Dry, scaly, hard skin with a white coloring on the soles and sides of feet
  • In severe cases, blisters or ulcers also occur

Treatment Options

For many people, the best treatment for athlete’s foot is prevention. You can take steps to avoid exposing feet to fungus in locker rooms, swimming pools, and other damp areas. Wash feet thoroughly and dry them completely before putting on socks and shoes

  • Apply topical antifungal ointment to feet and toes regularly
  • Put the antifungal powder in shoes and on socks
  • Take prescription antifungal medications as directed

5.cold sore is a small blister that appears around or inside of the mouth in most cases, but the sores can also develop around the nose and elsewhere on the face. They are caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Most people are exposed to HSV-1 as small children or toddlers by sharing eating utensils, cups, towels, or other items. After a person is exposed to HSV-1, the virus can remain dormant for years. Teens often develop cold sores after years with dormant HSV-1 due to hormonal changes during these developmental years.


In the initial stages, cold sores are blisters that then develop into sores filled with fluid. Finally, the blisters dry out, turning into scabs before flaking away. In most cases, cold sores are chronic and will reappear often. Symptoms :

  • Blisters and sores usually on or around the mouth
  • Pain or burning sensation
  • Red, inflamed, or swollen gums
  • High fever
  • Muscle aches or weakness
  • Nausea or ill feeling
  • Swollen glands

Treatment Options

Cold sore  is very painful , however it clears up on its own in a few weeks. so taking steps to address the symptoms can significantly improve comfort.

  • Use ice or a cold compress to relieve pain
  • Take oral pain medications (over the counter or prescription) as directed
  • Use topical numbing medications to relieve discomfort

6. Excessive sweating or hyperhidrosis.  Sweating is a regular phenomenon which allows the skin to breathe & regulate body temperature. However excessive sweating or hyperhidrosis is sweating that occurs when the body does not need to be cooled down. The excessive sweat can be expelled from any part of the body, but those with hyperhidrosis most often sweat from the palms, feet, underarms, or their head. Even if the rest of the body is cool and free from sweat, the areas where the patient experiences hyperhidrosis may drip with moisture.


Sweating is a natural and necessary process, but if your teen is experiencing any of the following symptoms, they may need to seek treatment for hyperhidrosis:

  • Even when at rest, sweat stains on clothing or dripping sweat is visible
  • Dripping sweat interferes with the ability to perform regular activities
  • Areas of the skin where sweating occurs become softened, pale, or peels

Treatment Options

Like some of the other skin conditions we’ve reviewed, teens who suffer from hyperhidrosis may be very embarrassed.

  • Iontophoresis electric current treatment for hyperhidrosis in the hands and feet
  • Daily use of prescription or over the counter antiperspirants
  • Botox injections in the underarms
  • Prescription oral medications that temporarily prevent sweating
  • In severe cases, sweat glands may be surgically removed

7.Sunburn is a burn that occurs due to overexposure to sunlight. Anyone  can experience a sunburn, but teens are at higher risk especially if  they participate in outdoor athletic events and fail to apply sunscreen. Daily application of sunblock can help reduce the risk for and severity of sunburn in people of all ages. Since sunburn is one of the leading causes of many skin conditions, including cancers, protecting skin from sun damage at all ages is important.


If you or your teen notice any of the following symptoms after sun exposure, you should begin treatment for sunburn right away to limit long-term damage:

  • Change in skin color, typically red or pink coloring
  • Affected areas feel warmer than unaffected areas
  • Burned areas ache or feel bruised
  • Sunburned skin tightens and itches
  • Severe sunburns swell or blister
  • People with very bad burns may experience headache, nausea, or exhaustion

Treatment Options

The ideal option is to avoid sunburn altogether by limiting time spent in the sun, using sunscreen every day, and covering sensitive areas with protective clothing and hats. Once sunburn occurs, you can take the following steps to relieve discomfort and promote healing:

  • Take over the counter pain relievers
  • Take a lukewarm bath or apply a cool cloth to the affected area
  • Keep burns moisturized using aloe vera or other intense moisturizers
  • Don’t pop blisters that appear, and clean those that break on their own
  • Gently remove peeling skin and continue to moisturize the area
  • Cover burned skin to prevent additional exposure to sunlight


Your skin type will determine your hair type . If your skin is dry , you may have dry hair and same applies for oily skin and  oily hair . There are multiple products available , however many of them cause a lot of damage

Dry Hair Care Tips

Hair looks brittle and feels “crunchy” to the touch.

There are many causes :

·         ranging from genetics to hair treatments.

·         Inactive oil glands can cause dry hair.

·         Dry skin

·         type of shampoo and conditioner. Words to look for on hair care product labels are “hydrating” and “moisturizing.”

·         take care with heat and chemicals

·         Electric hair Straightners and curling irons cause serious damage to hair.

·         When used on high heat, hair dryers can damage hair, too.

  • Hair colours , permanent & relaxers can strip the hair of vital oils
  • Some hair dyes contain fewer harsh chemicals than others.
  • Bleaches and peroxides, because they can make your hair brittle and cause split ends
  • Sunshine and chlorine can both cause dry hair
  • Swimming

Care : ·        

  • You can also protect your hair by wearing a swim cap when you go into the pool.
  • sSturate your hair with conditioner before heading to the beach or pool.
  • If you swim in a chlorinated pool, wash your hair in fresh water after swimming
  •  If you swim frequently, consider using a shampoo designed to remove chlorine from hair.

Oily Hair Care Tips

Oily hair comes from an an oily scalp. Wash your scalp and hair as needed, lathering twice if you need to. And condition your hair on the ends only. Do not place conditioner directly on your scalp. Avoid brushing your hair too often, as the brush brings oil from the scalp to the ends of your hair.

An oily-hair “quick-fix” is to dab a bit of talcum powder to the roots of your hair.

Hair Extensions

If you are looking for hair Extensions , you must follow the trend with caution and advice from a professional. The most realistic extensions are braided into your real hair, very close to the scalp. They’re “painted” with a bonding material, and then “sealed” with a heated solution.

The weight of extensions can pull on your natural hair, sometimes causing hair to fall out. There are safer, inexpensive alternatives, such as extension clips, that can be found in beauty supply stores or on the Internet.

Split Ends

Split ends can be caused by repeated blow-drying, heat-straightening, or excessive brushing. Once your ends are split, the only solution is to go to the salon to get them trimmed. But you can avoid split ends by brushing less, using less heat on your hair, regularly using conditioner, and protecting your hair from extremely hot or cold weather.

Regular haircuts and trims are a good idea, too. They help rid your hair of damage so that a healthier crop can grow up top.

Tangled Hair

The key to preventing tangles is to reduce the amount of chemicals (dyes, relaxers, perms) that you put in your hair, and to use a good conditioner in the shower. Also, make sure your hair is tangle-free before you wash it.

Avoid brushing out tangles. Arm yourself with a wide-toothed comb, your fingers, and maybe a leave-in detangler.  Start by gently picking out the tangles at the ends of your hair to avoid pulling out the hair. Once the ends are manageable, move your way up toward the scalp, gently combing.

Above all, remain calm. If you hurry, the tangles could get worse, resulting in a brush or comb full of stray hairs.

Six Hair Care Tips for Luscious Locks

  1. Accept your hair type :The more you try to change your hair type , the more problems are created  .
  2. Get regular hairtrimmed . Both guys and girls should get their hair trimmed regularly. Even if you are growing out your hair, get a trim at least once every two months (some recommend every six weeks). As you go through puberty, your hair might go through some drastic changes.
  3. Don’t believe the magazines or the back of the conditioner bottle, especially if it says you need every product in a particular manufacturer’s line of hair care products. Use only what you absolutely need. Often this can be as simple as shampoo and conditioner, and perhaps a deep conditioner to use weekly on dry or thick hair, or a detangler for tangle-prone hair.
  4. Beware of the brush. Even though it seems to make your hair shinier, repeated brushing can cause your hair to break and your ends to split. Of course, if you never use your brush, your mom would probably not be too happy. So use it when you need to, just not too much!
  5. Leave color changes to the professionals. Although do-it-yourself highlights and hair-color kits are easy and inexpensive, the results are almost always not in your best interest. Get a recommendation for a good stylist and consult with them (as well as your parents!) before you decide to change your hair color.
  6. Take care in braiding hair. Multiple-braid styles can look great. But do not over-twist or over-tighten braided hair. This can apply too much pressure to the hair roots and skin. Use natural oils, not multiple chemicals, on braided hair.